NAICS Code 31-33 - Manufacturing

Government Level - NAICS 5-Digit

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NAICS Code 31-33 Description

The Manufacturing sector comprises establishments engaged in the mechanical, physical, or chemical transformation of materials, substances, or components into new products. The assembling of component parts of manufactured products is considered manufacturing, except in cases where the activity is appropriately classified in NAICS Code 23 - Construction.

Establishments in the Manufacturing sector are often described as plants, factories, or mills and characteristically use power-driven machines and material handling equipment. However, establishments that transform materials or substances into new products by hand or in the worker's home and those engaged in selling to the general public products made on the same premises from which they are sold, such as bakeries, candy stores, and custom tailors, may also be included in this sector. Manufacturing establishments may process materials or may contract with other establishments to process their materials for them. Both types of establishments are included in manufacturing. Selected industries in the Manufacturing sector are comprised solely of establishments that process materials for other establishments on a contract or fee basis. Beyond these dedicated contract manufacturing industries, establishments that process materials for other establishments are generally classified in the Manufacturing industry of the processed materials.

The materials, substances, or components transformed by manufacturing establishments are raw materials that are products of agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, or quarrying as well as products of other manufacturing establishments. The materials used may be purchased directly from producers, obtained through customary trade channels, or secured without recourse to the market by transferring the product from one establishment to another, under the same ownership.

The new product of a manufacturing establishment may be finished in the sense that it is ready for utilization or consumption, or it may be semi-finished to become an input for an establishment engaged in further manufacturing. For example, the product of the alumina refinery is the input used in the primary production of aluminum; primary aluminum is the input to an aluminum wire drawing plant; and aluminum wire is the input for a fabricated wire product manufacturing establishment.

The subsectors in the Manufacturing sector generally reflect distinct production processes related to material inputs, production equipment, and employee skills. In the machinery area, where assembling is a key activity, parts and accessories for manufactured products are classified in the industry of the finished manufactured item when they are made for separate sale. For example, an attachment for a piece of metalworking machinery would be classified with metalworking machinery. However, component inputs from other manufacturing establishments are classified based on the production function of the component manufacturer. For example, electronic components are classified in NAICS Code 334 - Computer and Electronic Product Manufacturing, and stampings are classified in NAICS Code 332 - Fabricated Metal Product Manufacturing.

Manufacturing establishments often perform one or more activities that are classified outside the Manufacturing sector of NAICS. For instance, almost all manufacturing has some captive research and development or administrative operations, such as accounting, payroll, or management. These captive services are treated the same as captive manufacturing activities. When the services are provided by separate establishments, they are classified in the NAICS sector where such services are primary, not in manufacturing.

The boundaries of manufacturing and the other sectors of the classification system can be somewhat blurry. The establishments in the Manufacturing sector are engaged in the transformation of materials into new products. Their output is a new product. However, the definition of what constitutes a new product can be somewhat subjective. As clarification, the following activities are considered manufacturing in NAICS:

Milk bottling and pasteurizing;
Water bottling and processing;
Fresh fish packaging (oyster
shucking, fish filleting);
Apparel jobbing (assigning
materials to contract
factories or shops for
fabrication or other contract
operations) as well as
contracting on materials
owned by others;
Printing and related activities;
Ready-mix concrete production;
Leather converting;
Grinding lenses to
Wood preserving;
Lapidary work for the trade;
Electroplating, plating, metal
heat treating, and
polishing for the trade;
Fabricating signs and
advertising displays;
Rebuilding or remanufacturing
machinery (i.e., automotive
Making manufactured homes
(i.e., mobile homes) or
prefabricated buildings,
whether or not assembling/
erecting at the customers'
Ship repair and renovation;
Machine shops; and
Tire retreading.

Conversely, there are activities that are sometimes considered manufacturing, but which for NAICS are classified in another sector (i.e., not classified as manufacturing). They include:

1. Logging, classified in NAICS Code 11 - Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, Forestry, Fishing and Hunting, is considered a harvesting operation;

2. Beneficiating ores and other minerals, classified in NAICS Code 21 - Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Extraction, is considered part of the activity of mining;

3. Constructing structures, assembling prefabricated buildings, and fabricating at the construction site by contractors are classified in NAICS Code 23 - Construction;

4. Breaking bulk and reselling in smaller lots, including packaging, repackaging, or bottling products, such as liquors or chemicals; assembling and selling computers on a custom basis; sorting and reselling scrap; mixing and selling paints to customer order; and cutting metals to customer order for resale are classified in NAICS Code 42 - Wholesale Trade, or Sector 44-45, Retail Trade; and

5. Publishing and the combined activity of publishing and printing, classified in NAICS Code 51 - Information, transform information into a product for which the value to the consumer lies in the information content, not in the format in which it is distributed (i.e., the book or software compact disc).

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Industry Executives

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  • Business Development
  • Chairman
  • C-Level
  • Director
  • Engineering
  • Executive Director
  • Facilities
  • Finance
  • Human Resource
  • IT
  • Manager
  • Marketing
  • Manufacturing
  • Operations
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  • President
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  • Purchasing
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  • Vice President

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Questions & Answers

  • How many active businesses operate in NAICS Code 31-33?

    There are 317,847 verified business locations operating primarily in this industry.