NAICS Code 322 - Paper Manufacturing

NAICS Code 322 Description

Industries in the Paper Manufacturing subsector make pulp, paper, or converted paper products. The manufacturing of these products is grouped together because they constitute a series of vertically connected processes. More than one is often carried out in a single establishment. There are essentially three activities. The manufacturing of pulp involves separating the cellulose fibers from other impurities in wood or used paper. The manufacturing of paper involves matting these fibers into a sheet. Converted paper products are made from paper and other materials by various cutting and shaping techniques and includes coating and laminating activities. The Paper Manufacturing subsector is subdivided into two industry groups, the first for the manufacturing of pulp and paper and the second for the manufacturing of converted paper products. Paper making is treated as the core activity of the subsector. Therefore, any establishment that makes paper (including paperboard), either alone or in combination with pulp manufacturing or paper converting, is classified as a paper or paperboard mill. Establishments that make pulp without making paper are classified as pulp mills. Pulp mills, paper mills and paperboard mills comprise the first industry group. Establishments that make products from purchased paper and other materials make up the second industry group, Converted Paper Product Manufacturing. This general activity is then subdivided based, for the most part, on process distinctions. Paperboard container manufacturing uses corrugating, cutting, and shaping machinery to form paperboard into containers. Paper bag and coated and treated paper manufacturing establishments cut and coat paper and foil. Stationery product manufacturing establishments make a variety of paper products used for writing, filing, and similar applications. Other converted paper product manufacturing includes, in particular, the conversion of sanitary paper stock into such things as tissue paper and disposable diapers. An important process used in the Paper Bag and Coated and Treated Paper Manufacturing industry is lamination, often combined with coating. Lamination and coating makes a composite material with improved properties of strength, impermeability, and so on. The laminated materials may be paper, metal foil, or plastics film. While paper is often one of the components, it is not always. Lamination of plastics film to plastics film is classified in the NAICS NAICS Code - 326 Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing, because establishments that do this often first make the film. The same situation holds with respect to bags. The manufacturing of bags from plastics only, whether or not laminated, is classified in NAICS Code - 326 Plastics and Rubber Products Manufacturing, but all other bag manufacturing is classified in this subsector. Excluded from this subsector are photosensitive papers. These papers are chemically treated and are classified in NAICS Code - 32599 All Other Chemical Product and Preparation Manufacturing.

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Hierarchy Navigation for NAICS Code 322

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Industry Executives

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  • Business Development
  • Chairman
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  • Director
  • Engineering
  • Executive Director
  • Facilities
  • Finance
  • Human Resource
  • IT
  • Manager
  • Marketing
  • Manufacturing
  • Operations
  • Owner
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  • President
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USA Import, Export, and Balance of Trade

Import (USD)


Export (USD)


Balance of Trade (USD)


Top Countries by U.S. Imports

Canada $8,816,624,115
China $3,692,802,606
Brazil $1,571,909,416
Mexico $1,457,609,266
Germany $1,013,556,979

Top Countries by U.S. Exports

Canada $6,155,369,834
Mexico $5,272,219,706
China $2,691,222,872
Japan $1,102,513,754
Germany $636,037,355

Top Importing States

California $2,426,046,597
New York $1,959,846,629
Pennsylvania $1,591,418,719
Florida $1,501,082,950
Illinois $1,407,023,876

Top Exporting States

Georgia $3,767,607,927
Texas $2,017,986,618
Florida $1,347,401,303
North Carolina $1,310,453,788
South Carolina $1,206,133,256

Countries With Highest Trade Surplus

Mexico $3,814,610,440
Japan $658,762,222
Guatemala $321,132,548
Italy $321,103,563
Turkey $317,826,593

Countries With Highest Trade Deficit

Canada -$2,661,254,281
Brazil -$1,321,379,817
China -$1,001,579,734
Finland -$881,015,276
Germany -$377,519,624

U.S. Total Import value for NAICS Code 322 is $22,139,372,784. Canada, China, and Brazil accounted for the top imports of Paper in 2018. States with most imports of Paper in 2018 were California, New York, and Pennsylvania.

U.S. Total Export value for this industry is $25,522,306,131. Canada, Mexico, and China accounted for the top exports of Paper in 2018. States with most exports of Paper in 2018 were Georgia, Texas, and Florida.

Questions & Answers

  • How many active businesses operate in NAICS Code 322?

    There are 5,319 verified business locations operating primarily in this industry.

  • What was the total revenue for NAICS Code 322?

    In 2017 the total revenue for Paper Manufacturing was $184,587,048,000

  • What was the annual payroll for NAICS Code 322?

    In 2017 the annual payroll for Paper Manufacturing was $21,256,632,000

  • How many people work in NAICS Code 322?

    The number of reported paid employees is 335,193.